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Prostate cancer 2 and 3 degrees. How to distinguish these types and how to cure it.

Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor that is the ability to form metastases. As with any other disease, prostate cancer has some degree of development, and on the first two stages the prognosis is very favorable. The likelihood of this disease increases with age, because by nature, it is hormone-dependent.

In most cases of prostate cancer detected in men older than 55 years, however, in varying degrees, are exposed to it men of all ages.

Common causes of its occurrence are determined statistically, a Smoking, industrial hazards, hormonal drugs, hereditary factor, age of 50-55 years.

Cancer is a malignant tumor of epithelial tissue. Malignancy is the ability to grow into tissue that is to infiltrate, and metastasize.

Metastasis is a tumor cell, which through the blood or lymphatic system and spread throughout the body, forming new foci, which is called metastasis. Specifically prostate cancer most often metastasizes to the pelvis and regional (i.e., surrounding) the lymph nodes. The simultaneous presence of metastases in bone and lymph nodes is extremely rare.

The main symptoms of prostate cancer are:

  • frequent urination at night — nocturia;
  • urination painful or unpleasant;
  • retention of urine or oliguria;
  • in the urine there is a blood red color;
  • back pain the pelvis.

There are several classifications of prostate cancer

The transition from one classification to another due to different clinical information content of classifications.

But do not think that the old classification is of less importance than the international classification TNM. Just evaluation criteria for these two classifications are slightly different. "Old" classification called "old" because of the fact that it is obsolete, however, it is still being used.

The old classification

  • Stage 1 – the cancer is isolated, is located within the prostate gland. Tumour at this stage develops only on the surface, not penetrating into the very fabric of the body. Survival for 10 years at this stage high, at about 95-100%
  • Stage 2 – the cancer is isolated, is located within the prostate gland. The tumor penetrates deep into the fabric. The average survival rate is 60% within 10 years.
  • Phase 3– or, as some say, 3 degrees cancer, metastasizes to the pelvic organs and regional (lying nearby) lymph nodes. The survival rate to 60%.
  • Stage 4 – has spread to distant organs and lymph nodes. If not properly treatedsurvival rate of about 50%.

Международная TNM-классификация

Считается одной из самых информативных в мире. Обозначения TNM принято трактовать так:

  • T – tumor – размер. Имеется в виду размер опухоли и степень физического поражения железы.
  • N – nodules – узлы. Этот параметр несет информацию о поражении лимфатических узлов.
  • M – metastasis – метастазы. Определяется наличие метастазирования в другие органы. Конкретно рак простаты чаще всего метастазирует в кости и органы малого таза, а также в печень.

the Biggest danger is cancer of stage T3 and T4, where 4 is the size of the tumor in centimeters. T3 and T4 – usually it is a common cancer with metastases in the lymph nodes and bone. While pronounced typical symptoms, which are usually absent in early stages.

At the T3 stage, the cancer has spread outside of the prostate. During stage T4 are formed distant metastases – that is, the metastases in other organs – the rectum, the neck of the bladder and the bladder itself.

it is Important to note that even when running the process of carcinogenesis may not always appear bright clinical picture.


Why chemotherapy is not indicated for prostate cancer

At the chemotherapy uses cytotoxic drugs is a class of drugs that stop the growth of cells.

the fact that chemotherapy – cytotoxic agents – only affect those cells that are quickly and intensively divided. Prostate cancer, unlike cancer of other organs, develops very slowly, which explains the ineffective effect of chemotherapy. That is, cytostatics just cannot "see" the tumor.

What is metastatic cancer

In this type, more precisely a subclass of cancer, the typical clinical picture of cancer of the prostate is blurred or completely absent. Moreover, the focus of cancer development is placed on the spread of metastasis. Metastatic cancer is found completely by chance, either during routine inspections or when the presence of unusual complaints – for example, swelling in the legs or pelvis.

A huge role in the search of metastases plays such survey methods as radioisotope research tomography, magnetic resonance imaging.

In the treatment of metastatic cancer, the emphasis is on removing or alleviating the major symptoms and prevention of further spreading of metastases through the blood and lymphvessels. For these purposes all kinds of treatments that we have are surgical treatment, chemotherapy, interstitial radiation, and other.

As there are metastases in prostate cancer

The occurrence of metastases is directly related to the process of angiogenesis – the formation of new blood vessels. In our case, we should talk about the process of formation of blood vessels specifically in the cancer tissue of the prostate.

Sprouting in the tumor tissue, the vessel goes into the General circulation. Thus, in General the bloodstream and into cancer cells, which are then deposited in one or more bodies, from there to breed.

Since forming metastasis. Moreover, microscopic cell, that is, histological analysis will be shown exactly cancerous prostate tissue regardless of which body was found metastasis.

That is despite the fact that the metastases, for example, in liver, histological analysis of metastases will be visible to the liver cells (hepatocytes), and cancer cells of the prostate gland.

Metastases in lymph nodes

According to the classification of TNM – N, nodules.

Metastasis is possible not only through the blood vessels, that is, hematogenous, but also through the lymphatic vessels, respectively, lymphokine. In the course of the lymphatic vessels there are special filters, the lymph nodes. Roughly speaking, they are deposited bacteria, which are then killed by exposure of the leukocyte response. When metastasis lymphogenous way, in lymph nodes deposited not only bacteria, but also cancer cells that the immune system can not cope.

Cancer cells begin to intensely divide and multiply, forming a metastasis. Moreover, metastases in the lymph nodes can be remote – that is, the tumor is in the prostate and affected lymph node, and regional – that is, metastasis occurred in a nearby lymph node.

According to the TNM system, metastasis to the regional lymph node is denoted as N1. The lymph nodes, the destruction of which occurred increase in size and become painful on palpation. Usually they are soldered to the surrounding tissues. On either side of the prostate is one lymph node, due to their proximity to the prostate, metastasis to them is considered regional.

Metastases in the bone tissue

Extremely rare in primary prostate cancer metastases are found in the bones, typically, these metastases are secondary, or manifest at later stages of the disease, or absent altogether.

You need to remember that the metastases in the bone is an appendage bone, that is, the fabric still belongs histologically the prostate gland. Naturally, in the presence of bone metastases patients experiencediscomfort – feeling of heaviness to pretty intense pain. Because of this, cancer patients in the last stages are assigned to narcotic analgesics.