Symptoms of prostate cancer. You should pay attention.
Prostate gland (prostate) is a muscular-glandular male organ the size of a walnut, located
in the lower part of the pelvis under the bladder, before the anus at the base of the penis. The prostate gland surrounds the initial part of the urethra (urethra), which are derived sperm and urine through the penis.
From the prostate gland secretes a substance that is part of semen, and supports the activity of sperm.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancer in men. This disease is found in almost all men over fifty years.
The probability of formation of prostate cancer increases proportionally with age: frequency of detection of this disease in men aged 45 – 60 years is 2 to 3%, while at the age of 61 to 81 year – is about 16%.
What is prostate cancer
Prostate cancer (lat. Prostatic adenocarcinoma) is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the epithelium of the alveolar cell glands.
For prostate cancer patients can indicate some of the following symptoms:
- Cocanie urine (after urination);
- Weak and irregular urination;
- Long wait for the beginning of urination;
- Frequent urination;
- The need to push and strain while urinating;
- Nocturia (Frequent nighttime urination);
- Dysuria (urination, not bringing relief);
- Urinary retention;
- Hematuria (urine containing blood);
- Urinary tract infections;
- Abnormal ejaculation and erection.
In the last stages of the disease to all the signs added to the total exhaustion, and rapid weight loss (scientifically cachexia). This is due to the toxicity of the body.
The symptoms of this disease are different at different stages of development. The first stage of prostate cancer characterized by the absence of any clinical signs. Often at this stage the disease is detected incidentally (e.g. when testing biopsy of the prostate for suspicion of prostate adenoma).
Clinical symptoms in the second stage are still lacking. But the examination is sometimes revealed the node, and then establishes a diagnosis according to the study of histology biopsy of the prostate.
All of the above symptoms (nocturia, dysuria, etc.) appear only in the case if the patient is at the third stage. It is there that the majority of patients can be identified metastases of the tumor in the surrounding tissues. For the fourth stage of cancer is characterized by the presence of the tumor much larger, which is accompanied by pronounced symptoms of urology, as well as metastases in the lungs and bones.
Diagnosis of this disease is determined by the stage of the disease. When you consider all of the above, all men over the age of 40 should be regularly examined by a urologist.
Because ways to detect this disease are many, but the simplest ones are – study digital rectal and TRUS. The patient can also be asked to undergo screening for the presence of prostate cancer.
It includes the discovery of certain peculiar markers of prostate cancer in blood levels of alkaline phosphatase in the serum, PSA).
If the result is positive, the patient performed a transrectal biopsy of the prostate, controlled by ultrasound to confirm the diagnosis.
But the characteristics common only specifically for prostate cancer, do not exist. Most often, the symptoms are similar to symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Look at them below:
- irritative – a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder, painsensation in the perineum, constant urge to urinate;
- obstructive symptoms – urinary retention, difficulty in passing urine, thin or interrupted stream of urine. The increase in the number of urination. The need to strain the abdominal muscles for emptying the bladder.
But these above symptoms can be associated not only with prostate cancer but also with the appearance of metastases, tumor development, if we are talking about advanced stages of cancer.
Metastases can spread the tumor as lymphatic and blood. They are possible and in bone tissue. Metastases in lymph nodes are never combined with the same process in the bone tissue.
The four stages of prostate cancer
Clinical manifestations are not detected, and the diagnosis can be set randomly. For example, a morphological study of the removed adenomas.
Rectal examination can be found a tight knot in the gland; the specific diagnosis is established by biopsy; in this stage metastases are rare.
Frequent urination, hematuria, the tumor is at the base of the bladder, seminal vesicles, and pelvic wall; biopsy only confirmed the diagnosis; in most cases find Zabriskie metastases and pelvic lymph nodes.
Often, there are found the tumor is a decent size with eurovirgins disorders dysuric type; the main feature of this stage is the presence of metastases in bone or other organs.
In the serum of approximately 70% of cases detected high levels of acidic phosphatase.
Unfortunately, a clear answer to the question about prevention today has not given one. But I want to warn that you cannot apply for the prevention of this cancer are those drugs that are used for its treatment.
In either case, early detection of the disease. This contributes to prevention (about 1% per year) rectal examination. Just need to spend absolutely every man aged over 41 years, once a year to donate blood for PSA and to consult a urologist depending on the results of the analysis.
In all cases of doubt are required to examine the pelvic organs with an ultrasound.
Still, doctors give some recommendations:
- Reducing the consumption of animal fats, fatty snacks and meals, cream, fatty confectionery;
- The restriction of the use of nuts, legumes, potatoes;
- Tracking salt intake.
An interesting discovery presented scientists at the Congress of the Association for the Study of lung Cancer in the United States. According to their research, men who regularly drink coffee, discoveredlower risk of prostate cancer by 60 %.
For this reason analyzed the frequency of the consumption of coffee among 50 thousand men in America. At the time of the analysis, 4900 of them was sick with prostate cancer.
The advantage of this study is that the analysis not only in relation to General incidence of cancer, but also on the presence of development of aggressive forms of the disease type. It is in their relation to the observed protective effect of the popular drink — coffee.
Now it's safe to say that the Cup of coffee in the morning can not only cheer and raise morale, but also in a plan to contribute to the strengthening of health. But without a doubt, you should always remember that it's okay to eat in moderation.
Basic methods of diagnosis
Back to the main methods of diagnosis of this disease is the prostate biopsy, a rectal finger examination, TRUS (transrectal ultrasound), PSA (determination of the prostate peculiar antigen).
Rectal finger examination. This examination is performed by a urologist. He probes through the wall of the rectum the prostate finger introduced into the anus.
However, it is not always easy to interpret the data obtained on palpation. After all the changes in the prostate may occur in completely different disorders: prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, stones, cancer, etc. - But, despite all this, the results of palpation are the basis for further investigation.
The DOG — determining the presence of prostate-specific antigen
The DOG is a special blood protein produced by the prostate cells. Its level shall be measured with a blood test.
The concentration of PSA in the blood in men who do not suffer from prostate cancer should be 4 ng/ml. But the rate of this protein varies depending on age.
Transrectal ultrasound is performed as follows: through the anus introduced a special ultrasonic transducer into the rectum.
It allows to obtain an image of the prostate, to see the presence of tumors to determine its size, location. But TRUS does not allow to differentiate benign or malignant tumor.