Radiation therapy performed for prostate cancer. Its application and advantages.
The effectiveness and feasibility of this type of treatment, such as radiation therapy, time-tested and proven set
Radiation therapy – it also radiotherapy is the treatment by ionizing radiation. The goal of radiation therapy is the destruction of pathogenic cells, which make up the bulk of the tumor.
The word "cancer" refers to a tumor that has malignant course and develops from epithelial tissue. Under the malignancy refers to the ability of tumour cells to grow into tissue, the malignancy is characterized by the tendency of the tumor to form distant metastases.
Metastases are cells that are part of the tumor, which are able to migrate through the body, moving through the lymphatic and blood pathways. For prostate cancer metastases penetrate into the lymph nodes, pelvic bone, liver and other internal organs.
The essence of the method is to irradiate the tumor during the operation, that is, between the lesion and the source of radiation to healthy tissue is not.
Interstitial or interstitial method. Brachytherapy.
The method consists in the introduction directly into the prostate gland of the isotopes of radium or cesium. The advantages of this method include the ability to maximize the use of radioactive potential, without damaging the surrounding tissue.
Currently, the brachytherapy is considered the treatment of choice in the treatment of prostate cancer. According to the method of application there are two types of brachytherapy – manual and automated.
In the first method of setting and removing needles is done by hand, the second – with the help of specialized equipment (such devices as MultiSourse, Grammamed and others).
In medicine, there are different variations of brachytherapy – intracavitary, intravascular and interstitial. Specifically in Onco-urology for the treatment of prostate cancer, decided to use interstitial brachytherapy.
In interstitial brachytherapy, the radiation source is introduced directly into the affected tissue via needle or needle-like applicators.
It is possible to use temporary sources of radiation are removed from the body of the patient after treatment, and permanent sources of radiation, which after the treatment remain in the body of the patient. The main advantage of brachytherapy is an extremely low likelihood of direct complications of treatment, unlike external beam radiotherapy, the radiation acts only on a specific area of interest.
Brachytherapy used in the early stages of the disease, as an alternative to prostatectomy (surgery for complete removal of the prostate). Naturally, many patients refuse this method of treatment because of emotional factors, which is why brachytherapy is the technique of choice for such patients.
Dosimetric planning is performed using any imaging method. Most often in modern practice, as this method uses computed tomography, however, there are other methods like MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and ultrasound (ultrasound).
There are several phases when working with a patient:
- pre-implantation planning, which is performed few days before the procedure for dosimetry calculations;
- intraoperative planning is Performed duringoperations;
- interactive planning during the procedure using instrumental methods.
- postimplantation the study, which is carried out using 1-1.5 months after the procedure for dosimetric evaluation.
For the most accurate formulation of the needles in brachytherapy, uses basic methods of control – transrectal ultrasound and computed tomography.
Another advantage of brachytherapy is a very high tolerance operation patients. Even at the elderly age of the patient and a huge number of comorbidities, the next day the patient can leave the hospital and return to normal life.
More than 75% of patients who had surgery, live more than 10 years without complications, which is an excellent indicator of the effectiveness of treatment with such a method.
Rehabilitation after radiation therapy
In the first few weeks after surgery, it is not recommended to lift heavy loads (more than 4 kg). The load should be raised gradually. You can't sit more than 2 hours in a row, you must refrain from physical activity. Be sure to monitor the timely emptying of the bladder, to prevent its overflow. Monitor the timely emptying of the bowel. You should also avoid intake of alcohol and excessively salty and spicy foods.
The first couple of months after the surgery can not be kept on the knees of small children, it is necessary to exclude in close proximity to the patient, the presence of pregnant women.
There is also the possibility of the selection of the capsule with the isotope into the environment along with the urine. If this happens, and the time capsule managed to hold, then the capsule cannot be taken by hand. Should the tweezers to shift in the container, or any container, and in the near future to hand over the capsule to the clinic for subsequent disposal.
Before making an assignment about any other disease you need to consult a doctor-oncologist who performed the brachytherapy. Especially it is necessary to pay to this fact the attention in the first two years after surgery.
A month and a half after the operation, you must control the visits are to establish the size of the prostate. If postoperative edema slept, after consultation with an oncologist, the patient can return to a normal lifestyle. You can increase the weight of the lifted load, begin to do simple physical exercises.
After 3-6 months you can completely return to normal social and physical life. After six months, you must take the test of PSA (prostate-specific antigen). Around the same time the process of isotope decay. In the first yearneed every three months to test for PSA, and ultrasound examination of the prostate. The tests need to pass at least once in six months.
What are the stages of cancer are distinguished
- I – the tumor is isolated and is located within the prostate, while not penetrating deeply into the tissue.
- II – the Tumor penetrates deep into the tissue of the pancreas.
- III – the cancer has metastasized to the lymph nodes and pelvis.
- VI – the presence of metastasis in distant lymph nodes and organs.
What are the methods of diagnosis of prostate cancer there are
The diagnosis is made based on the data laboratory, instrumental and clinical studies. A huge role in the diagnosis plays a transrectal digital examination of the prostate and a survey of the patient. Basic visualization methods, that is methods, giving the image is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT).
The results can be obtained by layering the prostate and pelvic organs. Almost always used ultrasonography (us).
In oncourology there is a special modification of the usual ultrasound transrectal ultrasound examination, which is done transrectally, i.e. through the rectum. It instrumental methods of examination can help to detect the tumor at an early stage.
To clinical methods of examination includes a blood test for PSA. PSA stands for prostate-specific antigen. This analysis allows to carry out differential (exclusive) diagnosis of cancer with adenoma, prostatitis, and other benign diseases of the prostate. PSA levels significantly increased in diseases with a malignant course.
Laboratory diagnostic methods include biopsy, i.e. obtaining a biopsy (a piece of biomaterial) of the prostate, with its subsequent microanalysis. A biopsy is the only 100% confirm or deny a cancer diagnosis.