Extent of prostate cancer. How to determine and treat.
How spread prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis, determines the prognosis. To describe the severity distribution, doctors have a system of classification called staging.
The growth and spread of tumors
The tumor grows and develops within the prostate.
In many cases this process flows for many years. As a result, the disease is outside the prostate.
Ways of distribution
The disease is spread beyond it in three ways:
- by invasion of or growth into nearby tissues,
- through the lymphatic system nodes and vessels,
- by metastasis, that is, moving through the blood to distant tissues.
Each survey should not all men. It all depends on what characteristics of prostate cancer have men. These characteristics determine at the time of biopsy.
This method of study is compulsory and necessary in order to confirm the diagnosis if you suspect the presence of cancer.
During the biopsy there is a collection of cells or tissue for diagnosis.
Tests that determine the malignancy of the disease
Such tests include:
- digital rectalstudy
- prostatic specific antigen, which confirms or excludes the disease;
- transrectal ultrasound;
- MRI of the prostate in which the use of rectal probe;
- computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis to determine the presence of metastases;
- MRI of skeleton or radiological bone scan to determine the presence of metastases in bone tissue;
- Surgery, during which examines the lymph nodes in the pelvis to find out whether the spread zabolevanie.
The TNM system
Degree describe with three different options for the growth and spread of the tumor. This system is called TNM (tumor, nodes, metastases).
- T (tumor — a tumor) indicates the size of the main tumor area.
- N (nodes – node) shows, it spread the disease to the lymph nodes.
- M (metastasis — metastases) said about the distant spread of prostate cancer.
There is another classification. For example, the scale Gleason or the Gleason sum. This method is used for histological evaluation of dedifferentiate prostate cancer.
Small scale parameters correspond to vysokomehanizirovannyh forms, and high — nizkoeffektivnyj. That is, high values of the scale Gleason talking about the bad predictions of the outcome of the disease.